The great Gatsby book summary || short summary

The great Gatsby book summary

The great Gatsby book summary

English Great Gatsby of The  · 1925

“If you measure your personality with its ability to prove itself, then in Gatsby there was something truly magnificent, some kind of heightened sensitivity to all the promises of life … It was a rare gift of hope, a romantic fuse that I have never seen in anyone else.”

summary of The great Gatsby book

 

 

 

The great Gatsby book summary
The great Gatsby book summary

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Nick Carraway belongs to one of the small towns of the Midwest, the old wealthy family. He graduated from Yale University in 1915 and then served in Europe; after returning after the war to his hometown, he “could not find a place for himself” and in 1922 he leaned east to New York to study credit business. He settled in the suburbs: two completely identical capes protrude into the sea on the shores of the Long Island Sound, separated by a small bay: East Egg and West Egg; two luxury villas were located in West Egg, and a house he leased for 80 dollars a month.

His second cousin Daisy lives in a more trendy East Egg. She’s Tom Buchanan’s wife. Tom is fabulously rich, he studied concurrently with Nick at Yale, and even then Nick was very uncomfortable with his aggressive-flawed behaviour. In his honeymoon, Tom started to cheat his wife; and now he does not consider it necessary to conceal from Nick his relation with Myrtle Wilson, the wife of the gas station owner and car repair, halfway between West Egg and New York, where the highway runs almost right up to the railway and a quarter of a mile away running next to her. Daisy always knows about the infidelity of her husband, this torments her; from his first visit to her, Nick’s feeling was that Daisy had to leave this house right away.

Music is heard in Nick’s neighbor’s villa on summer evenings; on weekends, his Rolls-Royce turns into a New York shuttle bus carrying huge numbers of guests, and a Ford multi-seat runs between the villa and the station. Eight servants and a second gardener specially employed on Mondays eliminate signs of damage throughout the day.

 

Soon Nick receives Mr. Gatsby’s official invitation to the party and turns out to be one of the few invited: they didn’t wait there for an invitation, they just came there. No one in the guest crowd is well acquainted with the host; not everybody knows him by sight. His enigmatic, romantic character gives rise to great interest-and speculation is growing in the crowd: some say that Gatsby killed the man, others claim that he is a bootlegger, von Hindenburg’s nephew and the second cousin of the devil, and that he was a German spy during the war.

It’s also said he’s been studying at Oxford. He’s lonely, sober and constrained in the crowd of his guests. The community that appreciated the hospitality of Gatsby paid him for caring nothing about him. Nick almost unintentionally meets Gatsby: speaking to some person-they turned out to be fellow soldiers-he found that he was somewhat humiliated by the role of the host, Gatsby asks Nick for a favor after several meetings. Confused, he walks around for a long time, showing his respectfulness, he presents a medal from Montenegro, which he was awarded in the war, and his photograph of Oxford; finally, she says in a very childish manner that Jordan Baker will make his request-Nick met her at Gatsby’s house and met her at his sister’s house, Daisy: Jordan was her friend. The proposal was plain-to invite Daisy to one day for tea so that, supposedly by mistake, as a friend, Gatsby could see her, Jordan said they were with Daisy’s hometown, Daisy and Gatsby in Louisville in the fall of 1917, then a young officer, loved each other, but were forced to leave; he was sent to Europe, and after a year and a half she married Tom Buchanan.

But before the wedding dinner, tossing the gift of a groom in the garbage-a pearl necklace for three hundred and fifty thousand dollars, Daisy got drunk like a shoemaker and begged her friend to deny her name to the groom, clutching a letter in one hand and a sotren bottle in the other. She was thrown into a cold bath, however, allowed to smell ammonia, put a necklace around her head, and she “got married like a sweet little one.” The meeting took place; Daisy saw his house (for Gatsby it was very important); the celebrations in the villa stopped, and Gatsby replaced all the servants with others “who know how to be quiet,” as Daisy started to visit him frequently. Gatsby also met Tom, who displayed an aggressive rejection of himself, his home, his friends, and became curious, possibly suspicious, in the source of his money.

 

One day after lunch with Tom and Daisy, the hosts go to New York to have fun with Nick, Jordan and Gatsby. Everybody knows that a decisive battle for Daisy took place between Tom and Gatsby. At the same time, in Gatsby’s Rolls-Royce white, George, Nick and Jordan drive, and he and Daisy are in the dark blue Ford of Tom. Halfway there, Tom checks in with Wilson to refill-he declares that he intends to leave forever and take away his wife: he knew that something was wrong, but he did not connect her treason with Tom. Tom is frenzied, knowing he may lose his girlfriend and lover at the same time.

There was an explanation in New York: Gatsby tells Tom that Daisy didn’t love him and never hated him, he was just poor and she was tired of waiting; in response to this, Tom reveals the source of his money, which is actually illegal: bootlegging to a very large extent. Daisy is shocked; she has a propensity to stick with Tom. On the way back, knowing he won, Tom tells his wife to drive with Gatsby in a cream car; the others behind her in a lagging blue Ford navy. Upon approaching the gas station, they see the fallen Myrtle’s crowd and body. She saw Tom and Jordan in a big cream car from the window, whom she mistook for Daisy, but her husband locked her, and she could not come; when the car came home, Myrtle ran to her, free from the castle. Everything happened very quickly, there were almost no witnesses, not even the car slowed down. Nick heard that Daisy was driving from Gatsby.

Myrtle, released from the house, ran to her when the car came back. This happened very quickly, there were almost no witnesses, not even the car slowed down. Nick heard that Daisy was driving from Gatsby. Myrtle, released from the house, ran to her when the car came back. This happened very quickly, there were almost no witnesses, not even the car slowed down. Nick heard that Daisy was driving from Gatsby.

 

If she had to be there, Gatsby sat under her windows until morning. Nick looked out of the window— Tom and Daisy were sitting together as if they were one thing — friends or perhaps accomplices; yet he didn’t have the courage to take away the last hope of Gatsby.

 

Nick heard a taxi pulling up with Gatsby just at four in the morning. Nick didn’t want to leave him alone, and since that morning Gatsby wanted to talk about Daisy, and only about Daisy, Nick heard his youth’s strange story and love.

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James Getz was his real name. When he saw Dan Cody’s yacht he changed it at the age of seventeen and warned Dan of the hurricane. His parents were simple farmers-he never saw them as his family in his dreams. He invented Jay Gatsby completely in accordance with a seventeen-year-old boy’s preferences and ideals and remained faithful to this invention until the very end. He early understood women and began to hate them, corrupted by them.

In his heart, doubt reigned; he believed in the unreality of the actual, in the fact that the world rests securely and safely on a fairy’s wings. As he stood on the oars and looked up at Cody’s yacht’s white hull, it seemed to him that it represented everything that was beautiful and amazing in the world. Dan Cody, a millionaire rich in the gold mines of Nevada and the oil operations of Montana, took him on a yacht-first a steward, then a senior director, master, secretary; they swam around the world for five years; then Dan died. From the twenty-five thousand dollar legacy that Dan left him, by way of what legal intricacies, he did not receive a cent and did not understand.

And he stayed with what made him a strange five-year experience: Jay Gatsby’s theoretical scheme put on flesh and blood and became a person. Daisy was on his way the first “society girl.” She appeared dizzying to him from the first time. He started visiting her house-first in other officers ‘ agency, then alone. He never saw such a beautiful house, but he knew well that in this house he was not rightly there. At any moment, the military uniform, which acted as his invisibility cloak, might slip off his back, and under him, without a clan or tribe and penniless, he was just a young man. And so he was trying not to waste time.

He presumably expected to take and leave what was possible, but it turned out that he was destined to the shrine’s eternal service. She disappeared in her wealthy house, in her wealthy, full of life, and he was left with nothing but the strange feeling that they are now husband and wife. Gatsby grasped the paradox of youth in slavery and under the security of riches with breathtaking clarity.

 

His military career was a success: he was a general at the end of the war. He was ready to go back, but he ended up in Oxford due to a misunderstanding-anyone from the winning countries ‘ armies could take a course at any university in Europe free of charge. Daisy was filled with nervousness and longing in the letters; she was young; she wanted to organize her life now, today; she had to make a decision, and some sort of power was needed for it to come-love, wealth, undeniable benefits; Tom arose. Gatsby got the letter back in Oxford.

 

Saying goodbye to Gatsby this morning, Nick, having already left, shouted: “There’s nothing on insignificance! You put all of them together on your own! “How happy he was to say these words then!

 

Not looking for revenge, confused Wilson came to Tom, learned from him who owned the car, and then killed Gatsby and himself.

 

Three people attended the funeral: Nick, Mr. Goetz-Gatsby’s father, and just one of the many guests, even though Nick phoned all the regulars at Gatsby parties. He was informed that she and Tom had left when he called Daisy and had not left an email.

 

They were nonchalant animals, Tom and Daisy, destroying things and people, then running away and fleeing for their wealth, their all-consuming nonchalance, or something else on which their union relied, leaving others to clean up after them.

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Doll’s House book summary || short summary

a doll's house summary

Doll’s House book summary

Author : Henrik Ibsen
Genre: Universal Classics
Language:  English

 

About the author of a doll’s house summary :

Henrik Ibsen is considered the most important Norwegian playwright and one of the authors who has most influenced modern dramaturgy, creator of modern realistic drama and antecedent of symbolic theater.

 

Summary of Doll’s House book

 

 

a doll's house summary
a doll’s house summary

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For eight years, Torvald Helmer and Nora were married and had three children. They are conveniently located and live in a large home.

 

It’s Christmas Nora is delighted not to have to save more, because Torvald is going to be promoted to Bank Manager in New Year. Torvald maintains, though, that he remains careful, as his first paycheck in the new position will only receive him in a half, and he does not want her to be left in debt if something happens to him.

 

Torvald considers Nora as a doll with which she can play. Unlike his dad before, he doesn’t take her seriously. Christine Linde, a Nora acquaintance, comes to visit during the Christmas holidays.

 

For ten years, Nora and Christine have not seen each other and had a lot to say. Christine married a wealthy man eight years ago as well. In order to support her mother and her younger siblings, she needed the money.

After her husband died, he inherited nothing three years ago. He has had to work to support his relatives since then. In the meantime, his mother died and parents became his younger brothers.

 

Nora tells her she must be very relieved now, but Christine replies that everything she feels is a vacuum. Now he needs a new job, as he needs money as well. Nora agrees to ask her husband if she will be able to get a job at the bank.

 

Next Nora speaks about her last ten years to Christine. After the wedding, her husband, Torvald, converted work into a better paid place.

He worked so hard during the first year that doctors feared for his life and suggested a southern rest trip.

That’s why the family moved to Italy after the birth of their first son. Torvald claims that Nora’s dad paid for the trip until now.

 

Nora confesses to Christine, who actually asked lawyer Krogstad for a loan and forged her signature instead of asking her father to serve as a guarantor. Only this Christmas Krogstad understood the deceit.

 

Nora doesn’t seem to feel guilty because she did everything for her husband and father’s sake, but the lawyer makes it clear that the laws don’t take the controller’s reasons into account.

 

Krogstad attempts to extort Nora’s money and begs her not to fire her husband (he works at the bank as well). As Krogstad also forged a signature, Torvald ignores his mother. If only he didn’t deny the crime and was convicted of the offense….

 

Torvald is hiring Christine instead of Krogstad. Krogstad sends a revealing letter to Torvald because Nora has not fulfilled her part of the deal. Many years ago, Krogstad had courted Christine, but she had rejected him because her salary was not enough to support her mother and her little brothers.

 

Now Christine declares her love, which makes Krogstad so happy that she decides to do a favor to Nora and Christine and asks Torvald for the letter that is not opened. Christine disagrees, because Nora and Torvald do not think they should keep hiding information from each other.

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After Christmas, Torvald reads Nora, who had been all her happiness and pride for eight years, the letter and threats of a liar and hypocrite. He accuses her of being a thief without values, faith or sense of guilt, ruining all her happiness. He fails to stop Nora from committing suicide, however, and continues to conceal all that happened.

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The boy in the striped pajamas book summary

The boy in the striped pajamas book summary

The Boy in the Striped Pajamas by John Boyne book details

City – Country: Berlin, Auschwitz – Germany
Number of pages: 219

 

The boy in the striped pajamas book summary
The boy in the striped pajamas book summary

 

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Characters

Main :

 

BRUNO:

He is a 9-year-old boy, small (“Not being as tall as the other children in his class was a source of bitterness for Bruno.” – pg: 30) He likes to explore, and is a very good-hearted boy because he always He was thinking of bringing food to his friend Shmuel, a very good friend.

Shmuel:

A boy also small like Bruno, very thin and very pale (“His skin was almost gray, a paleness that did not look like any … He had very large eyes, caramel color and a very white white.” Page: 107) He is Bruno’s best friend, a very good friend who loves Bruno, he is very sad for everything that happens to him.

 

Mother:

Mother of Bruno and Gretel; She has red hair (“She was a tall woman with long red hair.” Page: 9) She is always worried about Bruno, manages to make friends with Lieutenant Kotler and suffers a lot in the new house, she doesn’t like what her husband does and he always has many discussions with him, always sets rules and wants his children to be educated.

 

Gretel:

Bruno’s older sister and who always bothers him (“Gretel had very unpleasant customs … Bruno did not like to admit that he was a little scared …”. Page: 29). I was interested in Lieutenant Kotler. However, she was a good sister because she gave herself time to listen to her brother and tried to make her understand things, she cried a lot for Bruno’s absence.

Father:

Bruno’s dad, commander of the German army, always looked for the best for his family and wanted Bruno to be a military man like him, he treated the other military well (“Father would long for us if he didn’t have us by his side …”) He hated the Jews, felt guilty about Bruno’s death.

 

 

Secondary :

 

  • Lieutenant Kitler
  • Pavel
  • Mary
  • Grandmother
  • Grandfather

 

Summary Of The Boy in the Striped Pajamas by John Boyne

The play “The boy in the striped pajamas” starts with Bruno a 9-year-old boy, who has to leave his 5-story house and his three friends from the city of Berlin to go to Auchviz due to his dad’s work so that Bruno felt very sad and could not accept staying there, and after several times asking his father and mother to return, he could not because his father had risen and it was part of his job to stay there.

 

However, he was amazed that from his window he could see people who worked, children, adults and the elderly and that they always wore a striped pajamas, but he did not understand anything about the subject for what they were like and only managed to see a chef He works at his house called Pavel with the striped pajamas.

 

After a while he was getting used to living there, however he was still very bored and had to put up with his sister Gretel who Bruno said was very dumb; She and Lieutenant Kotler didn’t like her very much. One day he decided to hang a tire from a tree to serve as a swing but he did not know where to find one for which Pavel, the cook, helped him, after a while Bruno was very driven against a tree that fell and became a knee wound and hit his head, but Pavel healed the wound and Bruno learned that he was a doctor but that being in that place ceased to be and that is why he is a cook. He could not understand anything.

 

One day he decided as an explorer, to look for new places, then he followed the path he saw from his window, first a large garden, then he managed to see the bench and there it was … a fence that divided everything towards a place of arid soil with small houses. Bruno decided to sit there and saw a spot that became a spot that became a blur that became a child, this was called Shmuel, who also had pajamas and had a very sad look; Bruno approached him and began to talk about many things Bruno told him about his life in Berlin and Shmuel only listened to the two became very good friends and always repeated these meetings in secret without telling anyone.

 

One day Bruno found Shmuel at home cleaning the small glasses and he was amazed to see his friend and invited him a piece of chicken, Shmuel ate him very happy and hurriedly, when suddenly Lieutenant Kitler came in and found them, and He saw that Shmuel had eaten for what he told him that Bruno had invited him and that he was his friend but Bruno denied everything for fear of the lieutenant. Shmuel did not appreciate in a week but when he returned he had a wound in his eye and looked even sadder, however Shmuel forgave Bruno and he was very happy. When all this happened Bruno’s mother every day was very bad so he decides to return to Berlin with his family since he could not stand living there anymore,

 

Then 2 days before returning to Berlin, Bruno goes to Shmuel to tell him the story and also learns that Shmuel did not find his father so Bruno promises to help him find him and enter the place where Shmuel is for a small hole under the barbed wire, and so the promise for the next day remains as a farewell to the two friends. The next day it rains a lot but that does not prevent Bruno from going to his friend so he arrives at the fence and puts on the pajamas that Shmuel had taken for him; At last he manages to enter the barbed wire and they go in search of Shmuel’s father but on the way Bruno realizes that it was not what he imagined (it was a beautiful place where many children play and there are happy families in each cabin) and he gets a little scared and thinks about going back to his house but he doesn’t want to disappoint his friend so he follows him and they look for an hour when suddenly the soldiers ask to get in line but Bruno already had to leave, however It can’t and the two are dragged along the line of people and it starts to rain. The two friends, along with the other people enter a room, Shmuel was very scared but Bruno grabs him by the hand and manages to continue like this even when the room gets dark … However, it cannot and both are dragged along the line of people and it starts to rain. The two friends, along with the other people enter a room, Shmuel was very scared but Bruno grabs him by the hand and manages to continue like this even when the room gets dark … However, it cannot and both are dragged along the line of people and it starts to rain. The two friends, along with the other people enter a room, Shmuel was very scared but Bruno grabs him by the hand and manages to continue like this even when the room gets dark …

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Bruno’s family looked for him everywhere and only found Bruno’s clothes under the fence as if the earth had eaten Bruno’s mother and sister cried a lot and the father felt very guilty and began treating others soldiers very rudely, after a year the Pope went to the same place and saw the hole and from there nothing mattered.

Evicted Book summary || Poverty and Profit in the American City

evicted book summary

 

 

About the author of Evicted Poverty and Profit in the American City

The American sociologist Matthew Desmond has explored the role of housing in the cycle of poverty. He was awarded the Pulitzer Prize in 2017. The personal wealth of a few is more important than the common good – as Mathew Desmond’s book “Evicted”. Poverty and profit in the city “. His interviews show that living space determines happiness and unhappiness in life.

evicted book summary
evicted book summary

Evicted book summary

The story starts with a snowball. The throws the 13-year-old Jori on a passing car and then runs into the house. The driver gets out, enters the apartment door angrily. The landlady sets Joris mother Arleen with her two guys on the street. It’s not the first time they’ve lost their apartment. And it will not be the last time.

This is the highly symbolic entrance scene of “Evicted”. The book by Matthew Desmond, a sociologist at Princeton University, appeared in the US in 2016 and was highly praised by critics.

Desmond explains his motivation in the American radio NPR.
“Compared to other prosperous democracies, the depth and extent of poverty in America is unique. I wanted to understand that, and above all, I wanted to understand the role of housing. I thought I did that best by living with the people thrown out of their homes.

He did that for almost two years. Rented in a trailer park and later in a black ghetto in Milwaukee, a city in Wisconsin in the Midwestern United States. He accompanied eight families, black and white, young and old, workers and academics. Among them is Arleen, a single mother of two sons. And Lamar, whose feet froze when he was homeless and on crack for a while. Or Scott, a former nurse who lost his job because of his addiction to painkillers.

Forced evictions as everyday phenomenon

In Milwaukee every fourth inhabitant lives below the poverty line. One in eight is thrown out of his apartment.

“It’s not just in Milwaukee. It’s in San Francisco and New York. It’s in Indianapolis. ”
But that’s not only the case in Milwaukee, but also in San Francisco and New York and Indianapolis, says Desmond. His book tells a deeper American story.
“… it tells a deeper American story.”

Estimates suggest that millions of people in the US lose their homes every year as a result of forced evictions. Because there are too few social housing, more and more people at the bottom of society are forced to rent apartments on the open market. But these are rare, especially in the cities and since the recession of 2007, when many Americans lost their homes and became tenants.

Rising demand drives up prices. Desmond’s protagonists pay 70, 80, sometimes 90 percent of their meager income for homes that are often in bad shape and in violation of building regulations.

But the landlords are on the longer lever, writes Desmond:
“The law prohibited landlords from taking revenge on tenants who had called the Department of Neighborhood Services. But landlords always had the opportunity to put tenants on the street for arrears or other violations. ”

Arleen and her sons spend $ 628 a month on social security – after deducting the rent – two dollars a day to live. Since the rent arrears quickly becomes chronic, the way into the debt spiral inevitably. Anyone who has ever been given an eviction notice loses the right to eventually get a social housing.

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Gloomy spiral of descent

Desmond mixes in his book statistics with reportage, analysis with environmental study. He encounters his protagonists with empathy, but he does not exaggerate them. The author accompanies moving companies and sheriffs specializing in forced evictions. They are disturbing, raw, often violent scenes:

“There was a lot to see in this job: the guy with ten thousand audio tapes full of UFO recordings, who keeps saying” Is everything alright! Is everything alright! “Shouted; the woman with jars full of urine; the guy who lived in the basement while his pack of chihuahuas ruled the house above. Just a week ago, a man had asked Sheriff John to give him a few more minutes. Then he closed the door behind him and shot himself a bullet in the head. ”

Desmond is particularly keen to describe the impact of the dissolution of a home on children.

“I’ll never forget a forced eviction, where I accompanied the sheriffs. We went to a house where only children were. Only children. The mother had died a few months ago, and the children had just kept living in the house. It was winter, it was raining, and the movers cleared the children’s possessions to the street. ”

Evictions, according to the author, drive socially deprived families into a dark spiral of descent, setting in motion a toxic cycle of uprooting and poverty. The long-term forced eviction and housing search often leads to job losses. For children, the chance to zero sinks, breaking the vicious circle of poverty through education. Arleen’s son Jori, for example, changed schools five times in two school years.

Desmond’s conclusion: “I’m convinced that eviction is a cause, not just a condition of poverty.” Forced evictions were a cause, not just a state of poverty.

Desmond mentions possible solutions in the last chapter. For example, government housing programs could take over part of the rents paid by low-income people on the open market. But the concept is not new – and the author’s hope of breaking the cycle of deep-seated poverty seems a bit naive.

“Forbidden”: Matthew Desmond’s study disturbs, worries and frightens. As a field researcher, Desmond is very close to his protagonist; his view is without filters, documentary and sometimes radically subjective. In any case, the author has achieved his goal: to examine the nature of poverty in America – and the key role that housing plays in it.

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evicted book summary
evicted book summary

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The machine stops summary || books summary

the machine stops summary

Em Forster’s novel »the machine stops summary « is a dystopian science-fiction story first published in 1909, which draws a frighteningly fitting picture of our times with its visions. The machine is a globally networked supercomputer to which people are completely subordinate. When they have forgotten what nature is and are no longer able to do even the simplest things themselves, the system gradually collapses. Forster’s warning against an uncritical attitude to such technical dogmatism is relevant to every human being of our time. In addition, the narrative stimulates an important reflection process.

the machine stops summary

  

 

summary

Here is exceptional news. Released in 1909, the Machine stops announces a century ahead our hyper-connected world, where more and more sedentary individuals communicate with virtual friends via screens. E. M. Forster describes a society at the mercy of a gigantic technical infrastructure. Atomized men live in recluse in underground chambers. All their needs – food, entertainment, transport, even social relations – are taken care of by the Machine. Reduced to the state of embryos under perfusion, the bodies become obsolete, the muscles and the senses atrophy. Only a few rebels dissatisfied with an above ground life dare to get rid of the grip of this machinery to live in contact with nature, outside of air-conditioned rooms, and taste direct relationships between beings of flesh. But when the Machine goes haywire, infants used to receiving everything find themselves caught off guard.

History of The machine stops

In 1909, a year after Edward Morgan forester’s third novel »room with a view, his dystopian narrative  appeared for the first time under the original title »the machine stops« in the November issue the oxford and Cambridge reviews magazine. But it was not until late that the story of the then thirty-year-old author received the recognition it deserves. After being voted one of the best stories of all time in 1965, “the machine stands down,” she became part of the popular modern short stories anthology in the same year and became the 1973 anthology for the science fiction hall of fame selected to compile the best science fiction stories of all time. Only recently has the story been rediscovered by readers in English-speaking countries.

About the author: [The machine stops summary]

Edward Morgan forster, born January 1, 1879 in London, is one of England’s most important writers of the 20th century. Novels such as “howards end” (original title: “howards end” / filmed by james ivory with Emma Thompson , Anthony Hopkins , helena bonham carter and vanessa redgrave in the lead roles), “room with a view” (original title: “a room with a view also filmed by james ivory with maggie smith , helena bonham carter, julian sands, and daniel day-lewisin the leading roles) or »journey to india« (original title: »a passage to india« / the filming was the last work of old master david lean ) are classics of the modern age. His debut novel “angels fear to tread” (original title: “where angels fear to tread”) was developed by charles sturridge with helen mirren , helena bonham carter, judy davis and rupert graves filmed in the lead roles. In his novel “maurice” (again a film by james ivory with james wilby , hugh grantand rupert graves in the lead roles) he treated the at that time taboo subject of homosexuality. Forster kept the novel, which appeared only posthumously, for almost half a century secret.

Forster, a member of the famous bloomsbury group for a time and awarded the british order of merit, died on june 7, 1970 in coventry, england.

Conclusion:

the us computer scientist jaron lanier said »the story the machine stops , published in 1909 – that is, decades before the first computers existed – is probably the earliest and probably most accurate description of the internet today. How em forster did that remains a mystery. ”

Of course, the fascination of the story goes straight from this mystery for us. When forster in the beginning of the 20th century warned against too much technical euphoria, he remained for the most part misunderstood. But today, with people chatting together, sitting opposite each other in the restaurant, photographing their food instead of really seeing the world around them, it could hardly be a more appropriate description of our world. Nobody can deny the central role internet and mobile phone play in most people today.

“the machine stops” raises questions that no one likes to ask. Who would still be able to navigate the world without internet for a month or forever? To what extent should culture replace nature and how can man lead a self-determined life if he surrenders himself to such a machine? After all, the way in which our data is collected through the internet is very similar to the machine’s information masses. The machine watches over everything. But we should read “the machine stands still” as a warning, because the story shows what can happen when people reveal too much of themselves.

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Em forster’s only science fiction story “the machine  stops” is a visionary warning against any dogmatic faith in technology and a plea for the courage to challenge fixed pattern, different and above all himself to think and question everything. That is why this short text is an important read today, which should be a compulsory program in all schools.

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